When several items are in close proximity to each other, they become one visual unit rather than several separate units. Otherwise, their distance should be larger and look more like several visual units. The basic purpose of proximity is to organize. To give an apparent view of the page structure and the hierarchy of information to users.
As is described in the Law of Continuity of Gestalt psychology, in the perceptual process, people usually tend to understand the object in the way that it is firstly perceived, to let the straight lines be straight and let the curve lines be curve. In the design of interface, aligning the elements meets users’ perception, also delivers the information to users in a more smooth way.
Contrast is one of the effective ways to add visual interest to your page, and to create an organizational hierarchy among different element that aid user in finding the information quickly.
The same elements keep repeating in the whole interface, which not only could lower the user’s learning cost effectively, but also help user recognize the relevance between these elements.
Make it Direct
As Alan Cooper states：『Where there is output, let there be input』. This is the principle of direct manipulation. eg：Instead of editing content on a separate page, do it directly in context.
Stay on the Page
Solve most of problems on the same page and avoid a new one, because the page refresh and forwarding can lead to change blindness, in addition to disrupting the user’s mental flow.
Keep it Lightweight
Fitts’s Law is an ergonomic principle that ties the size of a target and its contextual proximity to ease of use. In other words, if a tool is close at hand and large enough to target, then we can improve the user’s interaction. Putting tools in context makes for lightweight interaction.
Provide an Invitation
A common problem with many of these rich interactions (e.g. Drag and Drop, Inline Editing, and Contextual Tools) is their lack of discoverability. Providing an invitation to the user is one of the keys to successful interactive interfaces.
Invitations are the prompts and cues that lead users through an interaction. They often include just-in-time tips or visual affordances that hint at what will happen next in the interface.
Our Gray Matter are wired to react to dynamic things like movement, shape change and colour change. Transitions smooth out the jarring world of the Web, making changes appear more natural. The main purpose for Transitions is to provide an engaging interface and reinforce communication.
Invitations are powerful because they directly address discoverability and provide feedback before an interaction happens. Transitions are useful because they provide visual feedback during an interaction. But another class of feedback exists. It is the feedback that happens immediately after each interaction with the system, an immediate reaction paired with the user’s action.
While we can’t literally extend Newton’s law to the world of user interfaces, we certainly can apply this principle to the way we should interact with users. When users click on a button, they expect the button to depress. When they type in a field, they expect to see characters show up in the text box. When they make a mistake, they want the application to tell them where they goofed.
While there is a possibility of too much feedback (or, more accurately, too much of the wrong feedback—a concept we will discuss in the upcoming chapters), a system with little or no feedback feels sluggish and thickheaded.